Computer fundamentals for CAD operators including Photogrammetry and Lidar Professionals

Some basic computer knowledge is required for all CAD operators including Photogrammetry, GIS, Remote Sensing, Lidar etc. This tutorial is very helpful to know the history of computers. This tutorial is about computer fundamentals which is the basic of any courseware of Photogrammetry and Lidar.

What is Computer?

-A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions.

-Computers ranging from a mobile phone to a supercomputer are all able to perform the same computational tasks, given enough time and storage capacity.

-It is Common Operating Particularly Used For Technical Education And Research.

History of Computer for CAD operators including Photogrammetry and Lidar professionals:

The first use of the word "computer" was recorded in 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued to be used in that sense until the middle of the 20th century.

In 1837, Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable mechanical computer,

The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices.

Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices.

Generation of Computers

1) First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes:

 -computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate.

 -First generation computers relied on mechanism language, the lowest-level programming language .


2) Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors:

 -Transistors replaced vacuum tubes .

 -The transistor was far superior, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable.

 -Moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words.

 -High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN

3)Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits:

 -The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers.

 -Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.

 -third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time

4) Fourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors:

 -The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.

 -In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh.

 -Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.

5) Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Artificial Intelligence

 -Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality.

 -The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization .